EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF ARECA CATECHU ON FUMARATE REDUCTASE AND SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE OF COTYLOPHORON COTYLOPHORUM
Keywords:Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Fumarate reductase (FR), Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Areca catechu.
Parasitic helminths represent one of the most pervasive challenges to livestock. Paramphistomosis commonly affects cattle and sheep, and is caused by various species of the paramphistomidae. Anthelmintic drugs are used to treat helminth infections. The high incidence of resistance of helminth parasites to anthelmintic drugs in addition to the relative toxicity and side effects of many of these drugs urge the necessity of finding alternative safe and eco friendly agents against helminths. This applies to plant-based anthelmintics that have been used to destroy and expell the parasite from gastrointestinal tract. The parasites depend for their energy almost entirely on carbohydrate metabolism. The pathway of carbohydrate metabolism is essentially anaerobic and involves the glycolytic and part of the reversed tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Fumarate reductase (FR) and Succianate dehydrogenase (SDH), the enzymes of TCA cycle catalyses the reduction of fumarate to succinate and oxidation of succinate to fumarate. Reduction of fumarate to succinate complex results in ATP synthesis. Hence the efficacy of ethanol extract of Areca catechu (AcEE) was assessed based on its effect on FR and SDH against Cotylophoron cotylophorum. The parasites were incubated in five different sub-lethal concentrations of AcEE for 2h, 4h and 8h. FR and SDH activity was assessed using standard procedures. The enzyme activity was expressed in terms of protein. The data obtained were analyzed statistically. Maximum level of inhibition in FR and SDH activities were observed after 8h of incubation in AcEE. Inhibition of FR and SDH activity was dose and time dependent. Inhibition of FR and SDH interferes with the terminal electron acceptor and prevents succinate formation thereby curtailing the ATP synthesis. Decreased production of ATP results in the death of the parasites. Areca catechu as a potential inhibitor of FR and SDH activity of C. cotylophorum suggests the possible application of this plant extract to combat paramphistome infection in livestock.
Andiara moraes evangelista barbieri, Bruno ceneviva fornazari, Erika breda canova, Everton luis moreira, Luciana morita katiki. 2014. Effectiveness of Areca catechu linn against Haemonchus contortus in vitro egg hatch assay. B. Indústr. Anim; Nova Odessa, v.71, Supplement.
Anjali, S. andRao, A.R.., 1995.Modulatory influence of areca nut on antioxidant 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy anisole-induced hepatic detoxification system and antioxidant defense mechanism in mice. Cancer Lett. 91, 107?114.
Anthikat, R. N. and Michael, M., 2011.Anti-ulcerogenic effects of areca catechu l. in sprague dawley rats IJPSR, Vol. 2(1): 165-170 ISSN: 0975-82
Artho, R., M. Schnyder, L. Kohler, P.R. Torgerson and H. Hertzberg, 2007. Avermectin resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of Boer goats and Dorper sheep in Switzerland. Vet. Parasitol., 144: 64–73.
Azeez, S., Amudhan, S., Adiga, S., Rao, N. and Laxminarayana, A., 2007. Wound Healing Profile of Areca catechu Extracts on Different Wound Models in Wistar Rats. Kuwait Medical Journal, 39(1): 48-52
Barrett, J., 1981. Biochemistry of Parasitic Helminths. Macmillan Press, London. pp. 308.
Bartley, D., E. Jackson, K. Jackson, R.L. Coop, B.B. Mitchell, J. Sales and F. Jackson, 2003. A survey of anthelmintic resistant nematode parasites in Scottish sheep flocks. Vet. Parasitol., 117: 61–71.
Bizimenyera, E. S., Githiori, J. B., Eloff, J. N. and Swan, G. E., 2006. In vitro activity of Peltophorum africanum Sond (Fabaceae) extracts on the egg hatching and larval development of the parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Vet. Parasitol., 142: 336-343.
Boczon, K., 1976. Bioenergetics of Trichinella spiralis larvae and effect of some anthelmintics on succinate dehydrogenase of Trichinella spiralis mitochondria. In: Biochemistry of parasites and host–parasite relationships (Van den Bossche, H. ed.). North–Holland, Amsterdam, New York, pp. 589–597.
Challam M, Roy B, Tandon V., 2010. Effect of Lysimachia ramosa (Primulaceae) on helminth parasites: motility, mortality and scanning electron microscopic observations on surface topography. Vet Parasito.169:214–218.
Chen, M., Zhai, L., Christensen, S. B., Theander, T. G., and Kharazmi, A., 2001. Inhibition of fumarate reductase in Leishmania major and L. donovani by chalcones. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45(7): 2023–2029.
Coles, G. C., 1974. Fluke biochemistry: Fasciola and Schistosoma. Helminthol. Abstr., 44: 147–162.
Donahue, M. J., Masaracchia, R. A. and Harris, B. G., 1983. The role of cyclic AMP–mediated regulation of glycogen metabolism in levamisole– perfused Ascaris suum muscle. Mol. Pharmacol., 23: 378–383
Eysker, M. and Ploeger, H. W., 2000. Value of present diagnostic methods for gastrointestinal nematode infections in ruminants. Parasitol., 120: S109-119.
Fischoeder, F., 1901. “Die Paramphistomiden der Saugetiere”. Zool. Anz., 24: 367–375.
Fry, M., Bazil, C. and Jenkins, D. C., 1983. A comparison of mitochondrial electron transport in the intestinal parasitic nematodes Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Ascardia galli. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 75B: 451-453.
Harborne, J. B., 1998. Phytochemical Methods A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd Edition, published by Chapman & Hall, London. pp. 302.
Hassan, S. S., Kaur, K., Joshi, K. and Juyal, P. D., 2005. Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in domestic ruminants in different districts of Punjab and other adjoining areas. J. Vet. Parasitol., 19(1): 43-46.
Hordegen, P., Hertzberg, H., Heilmann, J., Langhans, W. and Maurer, V., 2003. The anthelmintic efficacy of five plant products against gastrointestinal trichostrongylids in artificially infected lambs. Vet. Parasitol., 117(1-2): 51-60.
Jabbar, A., Z. Iqbal, D. Kerboeuf, G. Muhammad, M.N. Khan and M. Afaq, 2006. Anthelmintic resistance: The state of play revisited. Life Sci., 79: 2413–2431.
Jeya, S. and Veerakumari, L., 2015. Effect of Piper Betle on pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of Cotylophoron cotylophorum. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. Volume 5, Issue 1, 1537-1548.
Kafle, S., Shanbhag, T., Shenoy, S., Amuthan, A., Prabhu, K., Mohan, S., Somayaji, S.N. and Shrestha, J., 2011. Antifertility effect of Areca catechu in male albino rats International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research.10(1): 79-82
Kanwal, S., Wadood, S., Naiz, S., Jamil, M., Irshad, M., Ilyas, M., Irshad, M. and Malook, I., 2014. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite (Paramphistoma Cervi) in domestic animals of district Buner, KPK, Pakistan. Reviews of Progress, 1(44): 1–12.
Kita, K., Miyadera, H., Saruta, F. and Miyoshi, H., 2001. Mitochondria as a target for chemotherapy. J. Health Sci., 47: 219–239.
Kumari, Y. S., 2006. Effest of tolzan on carbohydrate metabolism and protein metabolism of an acanthocephalan parasite Pallisentis nagpurensis parasitising the fresh water fish Channa striatus. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Bulletin-Pure-Applied-Sciences Zoology/199539291.html
Lemke, T. L., Williams, D. A., Roche, V. F., Zito, S. W., 2013. FOYE?S Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Seventh Edition Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, MD 21201
Madzingira, O., Mukaratirwa, S., Pandey, V. S. and Dorny, P. 2002. Helminth infections of cattle and antelope in a mixed farming system in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Parasitology, 627–637.
Manoj Dhanraj, K. and Veerakumari, L., 2015. Effect of ethanol extract of Areca caetchu and Syzygium aromaticum on GST of Cotylophoron cotylophorum. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences,; 4(10): 1117-1125.
Manolaraki F, Sotiraki S, Stefanakis A, Skampardonis V, Volanis M, Hoste H., 2010.Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes. Parasitology. 137:685–696.
Mansour, T. E., 2002. Chemotherapeutic targets in parasites contemporary strategies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Maule, A. G. and Marks, N. J., 2006. Parasitic Flatworms: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Immunology and Physiology. CABI, pp. 448.
Omura, S., Miyadera, H., Ui, H., Shiomi, K., Yamaguchi, Y., Masuma, R., Nagamitsu, T., Takano, D., Sunazuka, T., Harder, A., Kolbl, H., Namikoshii, M., Miyoshi, H., Sakamoto, K. and Kita, K., 2001. An anthelmintic compound, nafuredin, shows selective inhibition of complex I in helminth mitochondria. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 98(1): 60–62.
Pallewad S,Sanjay Shamrao Nanware, and Dhanraj Balbhim Bhure. 2015. Biochemical contents of Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Fischoeder, 1901) stiles et Goldberger, 1910 and its host intestinal tissue. Biolife. 3(1):192-195
Parvathi, J. and Aruna, K., 2012. Correlation of hyperglycemia and succinate dehydrogenase activity during hymenolepiasis in mice and treatment with praziquantel. IOSR. J. Pharm., 1(1): 022–028
Pessoa, L. M., Morais, S. M., Bevilaqua, C. M. L. and Luciano, J. H. S., 2002. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus. Vet. Parasitol., 109: 59-63.
Pithayanukul, P., Ruenraroengsak, P., Bavovada, R., Pakmanee, N., Suttisri, R. and Saen-Oon, S.,2005. Inhibition of Naja kaouthia venom activities by plant polyphenols. J. Ethnopharmacol. 97, 527–533.
Pithuyanukul, P., Nithitanakal, S. and Bavovada, R., 2009. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria. Molecules, 14(12): 4987-5000. DOI PMid:20032872.
Priya, P. and Veerakumari, L., 2011. Effect of Acacia concinna on the enzymes of glucose metabolism of Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Fischoeder, 1901) in vitro. Biomedicine, 31(3): 329-333.
Priyanka R. Patil, Sachin U. Rakesh, Dhabale, P. N. and Burade, K.B., 2009. Pharmacological activities of Areca catechu Linn. – A Review. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2(4),683-687.
Reeijiro, U., Toshiharu, M., Masaya, I., Yasuhiro, T. and Akira F., 1998. New 5- nucleotidaseinhibitors NPF 861A, 861-B, NPF-866 A and NPF-86 B from Areca catechu, Isolation and biological properties. Planta Medica. 54; 419-422.
Roy, B., Swargiary, A. and Giri, B. R., 2012. Alpinia nigra (Family Zingiberaceae): An anthelmintic medicinal plant of North–East India. Adv. Life Sci., 2(3): 39–51.
Sanadi, D. R. and Fluharty, A. L., 1963. On the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. VII- The energy requiring reduction of pyridine nucleotide by succinate and energy yielding oxidation of reduced pyridine nucleotide by fumarate. Biochemistry, 2: 523-528.
Schulman, M. D., Ostlind, D. A. and Valentino, D., 1982. Mechanism of action of MK–401 against Fasciola hepatica: inhibition of phosphoglycerate kinase. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 5(3): 133–45.
Senthil Amudhan, M., Hazeena Begum, V. andHebbar Amudhan,K.B., 2012. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Areca catechu seed. IJPSR; Vol. 3(11): 4151-4157.
Shrestha, J., Shanbhag, T., Shenoy, S., Amuthan, A., Prabhu, K., Sharma, S., Banerjee, S. andKafle, S., 2010.Antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of Areca catechu (betel nut) in female rats. Indian J Pharmacol;42:306-11
Singer, T. P., 1974. Determination of activity of succinate, NADH, choline and β-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. In: Methods in Biochemical Analysis. (Glick, D ed.), Vol. 22, Interscience publications. John Wiley and Son, New York, pp. 133-161.
Singh, K. and Ngachi, S., 1999. Efficacy of aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya against common poultry worms Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinae. J. Parasit. Dis., 23: 113-116.
Skuce, P. J. and Fairweather, I., 1990. The effect of the hydrogen ionophore closantel upon the pharmacology and ultrastructure of the adult liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Parasitol. Res., 76: 241–250.
Swan, G. E., 1999. The pharmacology of halogenated salicylanilides and their anthelmintic use in animals. Tydskr. S. Afr. Vet. Ver., 70(2): 61–70.
Turrens, J. F., 2012. The enzyme-NADH fumarate reductase in trypanosomatids – A potential target against parasitic diseases. Mol. Cell Pharmacol., 4(3): 117–122.
Veerakumari, L.., 1996. In vitro studies on the effect of some anthelmintics on Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Fischoeder, 1901) (Digenea: Paramphistomidae). A structural and biochemical analysis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Madras. Chennai.
Veerakumari, L. and Munuswamy, N., 1999. In vitro studies on the effect of some anthelmintics on Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Digenea: Paramphistomidae): a structural analysis. Cytobios, 98: 39– 57
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.